Pharmacy Education

Reintroduction of Submit-Baccalaureate Physician of Pharmacy

Sunil Shrestha,1,2,* Sweta Shrestha,3,* Binaya Sapkota,2,* Rajani Shakya,3 Rohullah Roien,4 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim5

1Division of Pharmaceutical and Well being Service Analysis, Nepal Well being Analysis and Innovation Basis, Lalitpur, Nepal; 2Nobel School of Well being Sciences, Affiliated to Pokhara College, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Division of Pharmacy, College of Science, Kathmandu College, Dhulikhel, Nepal; 4Medical Analysis Centre, Kateb College, Kabul, Afghanistan; 5Division of Medical Pharmacy and Apply, School of Pharmacy, QU Well being, Qatar College, Doha, Qatar

Summary: This commentary article highlights the standing of medical pharmacy training in Nepal, explores the challenges and options in sustainably reintroducing Submit-Baccalaureate Physician of Pharmacy (PharmD, Submit-Bac) in Nepal, as was beforehand launched by Kathmandu College (KU) Division of Pharmacy in 2010, and suggests a couple of prospects ahead. Medical pharmacy observe has remained on the sidelines and subordinate to physicians in Nepal. KU launched the PharmD (Submit-Bac.) as a postgraduate program to ascertain the skilled identification of medical pharmacists within the nation. Nonetheless, regardless of unremitting efforts, this system didn’t thrive lengthy and held since 2014. This paper aimed to discover challenges that remained on the forefront of this system and supply potential options for its reintroduction. The KU produced three batches of PharmD Submit-Bac. graduates and now the revival of this system is essential. Undoubtedly, a well-trained medical preceptor can convey important adjustments within the high quality and competency of the PharmD graduates. Advocacy applications to foster the function of medical pharmacists within the affected person care providers and revisiting of Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum to enhance the need of the PharmD program are wanted. The non-sustenance of the PharmD program is emblematic of the dire mosaic that the medical pharmacists are dealing with whereas delivering patient-oriented providers within the nation. Therefore, methods must be formulated for the revival and sustainability of this system.


Globally, the pharmacy occupation is without doubt one of the most well-known and acknowledged professions. Over latest a long time, the pharmacy occupation has begun to undertake important adjustments in observe. Nonetheless, in Nepal, pharmacy observe remains to be in its infancy. There was a substantial enhance in pharmacy faculties and pharmacy graduates; nonetheless, a transparent profession path for pharmacists nonetheless lacks.1,2 With the continuity of this example, the mind drain will probably be difficult to keep away from. Medical pharmacy is nicely developed and accepted in western society, however the state of affairs remains to be woeful in Nepal.1,3,4

Dramatic adjustments within the well being care system are creating many new and thrilling roles for pharmacists. Pharmacists at the moment are answerable for the protected and efficient distribution of prescription and non-prescription medicines. Nonetheless, in addition they assume the function of pharmaceutical remedy advisor and supervisor in offering patient-care providers.

Most pharmacists enter both into the pharmaceutical industries or academia in Nepal and barely within the community-level well being care or hospitals. After being part of well being take care of such an prolonged interval since Kathmandu College (KU) first launched the Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) program in 1994 it’s excessive time that pharmacists acquire and implement the worldwide experiences in hospital, medical and neighborhood pharmacies. Later, postgraduate applications in pharmacy comparable to MPharm in Pharmaceutical Care, MPharm in Industrial Pharmacy had been launched by KU, MPharm Medical Pharmacy by Pokhara College (PU), and Purbanchal College. The Medical Schooling Fee (MEC), the one authorities physique for regulating well being science applications of all universities and affiliated faculties in Nepal, has just lately permitted KU to launch two new specializations of MPharm, particularly in Pharmaceutical Evaluation, and Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. As well as, MEC has additionally consented to the relaunch of the postponed PharmD (Submit-Bac) program. From 2022 KU can be working two clinical-oriented programs, MPharm in Pharmaceutical Care and PharmD (Submit-Bac) in parallel in contrast to the earlier 12 months.

In contrast to the developed international locations the place pharmacy training and curriculum change due to the altering observe, in growing international locations, the demand is to vary the curriculum with a hope of adjusting observe – a change mannequin that’s fairly possible. In response to the Worldwide Pharmacy Federation (FIP) framework, the event of initiatives in training, observe or regulation can immediate or function drivers of change in others.5

PharmD Program Initiation in Nepal

To fulfill the demand for change in observe and notice the necessity to make the pharmacists eligible to supply medical pharmacy providers, PharmD, the post-baccalaureate course, was launched within the Division of Pharmacy, College of Science, KU, in 2010 for the primary time in Nepal.6 The PharmD (Submit-Bac) curriculum was so designed {that a} pharmacist will advise, seek the advice of, and assist docs choose and dispense medicines to sufferers and play a big function in remedy remedy administration (MTM). The three-year PharmD program acquired equivalency of Grasp’s diploma in pharmacy from Tribhuvan College (TU), Nepal (the one authority in Nepal to supply equivalency and approve the applications). Different modalities of PharmD applications comparable to six-year PharmD and five-year PharmD from India and Pakistan, respectively, after the intermediate degree, had been acknowledged because the Bachelor’s diploma by TU.

The three-year PharmD, Submit Bac. program, launched by KU, was divided into two phases: Section I – consisting of the primary and second educational 12 months with two semesters in every and Section II – consisting of internship or residency coaching within the speciality items of hospitals in the course of the third 12 months. PharmD, Submit-Bac college students, had been educated in numerous dimensions of pharmacy observe in the course of the internship, comparable to pharmacotherapy of varied physique programs (eg, cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and others) and medical pharmacy observe. As well as, college students had been deputed in numerous departments of hospitals (eg, drugs, surgical procedure, anesthesiology, cardiology, dermatology, paediatrics, pharmacy, pharmacovigilance, and drugs info centre, gynaecology-obstetrics, neurology, dentistry and others). Along with this, college students had been offered weekly three-day publicity to medical ward rotations on the Dhulikhel Hospital for the primary one and half years. Undertaking work of 1 semester was included on the finish of the second 12 months, the place the scholars developed and introduced the report of their medical analysis output akin to a thesis. Altogether, KU educated 29 PharmD, Submit-Bac graduates, all of whom are contributing nicely to the well being care enviornment in Nepal and overseas in medical pharmacy setup at tertiary care and medical faculty hospitals, academia at universities and affiliated faculties, central and provincial authorities regulatory authority, pharmaceutical merchandise improvement and advertising and marketing, neighborhood pharmacies and clinics, Analysis, coaching, and publication. The nation calls for important enter from medical pharmacists in all these areas, together with different unexplored ones comparable to medical trials, advisor pharmacists, and others. Extra high quality human sources are required. As there’s already a pre-established set-up and school availability for the PharmD (Submit-Bac) program on the division, KU can reintroduce the postponed program with the brand new imaginative and prescient. KU has developed the mechanism of offering extra bed-side evidence-based medical rounds and observe alternatives to the longer term PharmD aspirants beneath the steerage of a devoted in-house medical preceptor, following the pathway of the PharmD program elsewhere.7 The MEC has just lately mandated KU to relaunch the PharmD program with ten enrollment in a batch, as of the earlier format.8 As KU is the pioneer in introducing undergraduate and postgraduate applications in pharmacy in Nepal, the introduction or postponement of any of its applications carries nationwide consideration. The ad-hoc postponement of the one PharmD (Submit-Bac) program was not freed from its national-level affect in medical pharmacy and the entire pharmacy occupation within the nation. The Division of Pharmacy (KU) initiated the Pharm D (Submit-Bac) program to supply specialised, educated human sources to cater for the wants of individualized affected person care and assist the paradigm shift in the direction of patient-oriented observe. Regardless of realizing the untapped potential of medical pharmacists, the college was certain to maintain the PharmD program on maintain. Amidst the a number of arrays of challenges confronted, essentially the most important setback was the frail job marketplace for the medical pharmacists and the comparatively low pay scale supplied by the working establishments. Contemplating the danger of unemployment together with challenges talked about above, an disagreeable choice for holding this system was taken. Nonetheless, a silver lining was seen when the Ministry of Well being and Inhabitants (MOHP), Nepal, developed the Hospital Pharmacy Directive 2072 in 2015, stating the recruitment of a medical pharmacist in each hospital with 51–100 beds.9 This was thought to amplify the significance and platforms of medical pharmacists seemingly. Nonetheless, as of 2021, the implementation is hardly seen in observe, regardless of optimistic adjustments. Regardless of reflecting on the numerous challenges that also can stand as an obstacle to this system, KU spearheaded a second daring try to vary the established order for medical pharmacists and an effort to consolidate a extra patient-oriented strategy in well being care.

Potential Areas for PharmD Graduates in Hospitals of Nepal

With the rise in varied common and specialty hospitals in Nepal, there’s an rising scope for PharmD graduates in Nepal. After PharmD commencement, medical pharmacists can play a vital function in figuring out, stopping, and mitigating drug therapy-related issues and stand as pharmaceutical care suppliers. A couple of of the potential medical pharmacy areas that PharmD graduates can concentrate on and are doing nicely within the capability of medical pharmacists are listed in Desk 1.

Desk 1 Potential Areas for PharmD Graduates

PharmD graduates produce other potential roles as nicely in addition to these talked about in Desk 1, comparable to teachers, medical analysis, advertising and marketing, and regulatory affairs.38

Challenges and Potential Options to the PharmD Program

Comparability of PharmD Program with MPharm Pharmaceutical Care and MPharm Medical Pharmacy Applications

Though two-year programs MPharm in Pharmaceutical Care (being run by KU), and MPharm Medical Pharmacy (being run by PU and Purbanchal College) might seem like potential alternate options to the PharmD program, these applications are devoid of devoted annual internship of their core curricula. The PharmD graduates endure an intensive internship of 1 12 months to empower them with the information and expertise required to supply individualized affected person care, remedy evaluate, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), medical ward spherical participation, and many others.

Owing to the one-year brief length, these two applications have condensed internship exposures to solely six weeks in hospitals and have aligned extra of their focus to academia and analysis observe. Therefore, PharmD program can surpass all theoretical, sensible, and medical observe necessities of those applications and may efficiently cater to many service-based necessities within the hospital and neighborhood pharmacies, academia, analysis, and regulatory affairs. Additionally, PharmD can higher be seen as a practice-based course that prepares the graduates completely for direct affected person care providers with the needful information, publicity, and competency. Apart from, PharmD is the one program globally appropriate for additional specialty certification programs like Board-Licensed programs within the USA.

The dominant driving power behind pioneering the PharmD program in Nepal was assembly nationwide want for expert human sources with medical competency to observe in a group of health-care professionals concerned in direct affected person care. Although small, PharmD graduates of this college have made their first rate presence in varied medical settings, authorities regulatory settings, pharmaceutical merchandise improvement and advertising and marketing, analysis areas with a number of publications in famend journals, and academia, which clearly displays success of this system.

There are a number of potential challenges, comparable to recognising the function of medical pharmacists, implications of upper course charges and return of funding, and availability of educated medical preceptors (Desk 2). Nonetheless, regardless of the potential hurdles, their nationwide want for expert human sources with medical competency to observe in a group of health-care professionals concerned in direct affected person care was the dominant driving power behind pioneering the PharmD program in Nepal.

Desk 2 Challenges and Options of PharmD Program

This achievement was as a result of headstrong impulse the graduates moved forward to ascertain their identification amidst the challenges. The graduates from the earlier batches are firmly in favour of reviving the PharmD program, which in keeping with them, is without doubt one of the avenues to revamp the shadowed and unexplored occupation of medical pharmacy. Nonetheless, they consider that the previous three years’ expertise of working the PharmD should be delivered to the perfect of its use to convey it up as a sustainable program sooner or later. The division has significantly valued their suggestions and has developed a modality to regularly deal with these within the reintroduction section of this system to make this system viable and sustainable and make the affect of this system a milestone within the medical pharmacy observe within the nation.

Greater Price

These with PharmD {qualifications} may need a better expectation for wage firstly as a result of comparatively greater price of this system and the difficult nature of medical observe jobs. There exists a distinction within the tuition charges of MPham in Pharmaceutical Care and PharmD, Submit Baccalaureate applications. Secondly, a PharmD graduate spends one further 12 months to realize the diploma in distinction to the two-year postgraduate applications in Pharmaceutical Care and Medical Pharmacy. A better anticipated wage for these with PharmD {qualifications} is likely to be a barrier to coming into the market later. Nonetheless, this can be a subjective notion which will fluctuate amongst people.

The challenges and options to the PharmD program are proven in Desk 2.


This commentary targets reflection on the challenges confronted up to now and internalizing the potential cures to the PharmD program’s reintroduction and making it sustainable. There’s a realization that we must be extra patient-oriented well being professionals and be part of the health-care group. When contemplating training as a observe change driver, it’s important to think about varied parts like infrastructure, availability of hospital-based pharmacy observe surroundings and exposures, employment alternatives, and many others., to make sure this system sustainability. The initiation of the PharmD course by KU Division of Pharmacy had offered a roadmap for the upliftment of medical pharmacy observe in Nepal. Nonetheless, the sudden postponement of this system has created an irreparable vacuum to the identical, which is, happily, being fulfilled by the MEC’s new choice of authorizing the college to reintroduce this system from 2022 consumption. Reintroducing this system with the brand new imaginative and prescient of evidence-based medical ward rounds in speciality items of the hospital within the steerage of a devoted in-house medical preceptor would assist this system be sustainable within the days to return.


The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. Santosh Thapa (Jeevee Well being, Nepal) and Dr. Saval Khanal (Warwick Medical College, College of Warwick, United Kingdom) for his or her constructive evaluate and strategies throughout preparation of the preliminary draft of the manuscript.


The authors declared no potential conflicts of curiosity with respect to the analysis, authorship, and/or publication of this text.


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